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Методические указания и контрольные задания для студентов 1 курса железнодорожных специальностей заочной формы обучения - страница 3


ENGINES


Do you know what the first engine was like? It was called “the water wheel”. This was an ordinary wheel with blades fixed to it and the current of a river turned it. These first engines were used for irrigating fields. Then a wind-powered engine was invented. It was a small wheel with long wide wooden blades attached to it. The new engine was driven by the wind. Both of these engines, the water-and wind- operated, are very economical. They don’t need fuel to function, but they are dependent on the weather.

Many years passed and people invented a new engine operated by steam. In a steam engine there is a furnace and a boiler. The furnace is filled with wood or coal and then lit. The fire heats the water in the boiler and when it boils, it turns into steam. The (чем) more coal is put in the furnace, the (тем) stronger the fire is burning. The more steam there is, the faster a train or a boat is moving. The steam engine drove all sorts of machines, for example, steam ships and steam locomotives. The very first aeroplane built by A.F. Mozhaisky also had a steam engine. This engine played a very important part in the history of transport and industry development. However it had its disadvantages. It was too large, heavy and needed too much fuel.

The imperfections of the steam engine led to the design of a new type. It was called the internal combustion engine, because its fuel ignites and burns inside the engine itself and not in a furnace. It is smaller and lighter than a steam engine because it does not have a boiler. It is also more powerful, as it uses better-quality fuel: petrol or kerosene.

The internal combustion engine is now used in cars, diesel locomotives and motor ships. But in order to enable airplanes to fly faster than the speed of sound another more powerful engine was needed. Eventually, one was invented and it was given the name “jet engine”. The gases in it reach the temperature of over a thousand degrees. It is made of a very resistant metal so that it will not melt.


Х. Укажите, какие из следующих утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста. Используйте фразы: It is right. It is wrong. Исправьте неверные утверждения.

1. The steam engine is the most powerful one, and it is widely used nowadays. 2. Water wheels were used for irrigating fields. 3. Internal combustion engines are very economical and don’t need fuel to function. 4. The very first locomotive was powered by the steam engine. 5. Wind-powered engines played a very important part in the history of transport. 6. In an internal combustion engine there is a furnace and a boiler. 7. An internal combustion engine is smaller and lighter than a steam engine. 8. Internal combustion engines are used in airplanes. 9. Jet engines are made of a very resistant metal. 10. A jet engine doesn’t have a boiler.

ВАРИАНТ 3


I. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future) в действительном залоге. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.

1. This train will proceed to its destination without any stops. 2. The price of the ticket in the London Underground depends on the distance you travel. 3. The invention of a steam engine started the first industrial revolution. 4. The top speed of the first steam locomotive was 13 miles per hour. 5. Students of technical institutes have practical training at various enterprises, and it gives them an opportunity not only to watch production processes but also to take part in them.
II. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future) в страдательном залоге. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.
1. Since Paris is located in the center of the country, the passengers who spend a day in the capital can reach any town the same evening. 2. Our flight will be delayed because of a strike of air-traffic controllers. 3. The freight turnover was reduced because of a considerable increase of transportation cost. 4. New plastic and synthetic materials are widely used for the interior and exterior finishes of carriages. 5. The demand for tickets was so great that they were sold out as soon as the booking-office was opened.


III. Перепишите и переведите предложения, поставив глагол в нужную форму.

1. This railroad (to design – Present Indefinite Passive) to handle only freight trains. 2. We (to leave – Past Indefinite Active) our car in the parking lot near the terminal. 3. The shuttle-train (to cover – Present Indefinite Active) the distance from London to Paris in 3 hours 40 minutes. 4. Steel rails (to use – Past Indefinite Passive) in the USA for the first time in 1863. 5. You (to catch – Future Indefinite Active) the train, if you (to hurry – Present Indefinite Active) up.

IV. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление оборота there + to be.

1. We missed the last train and tried to get tickets for the morning train but there were no tickets available in the booking-office. 2. In the USA there is a special discount for those passengers who buy round-trip tickets. 3. There are road works in the center streets of the city that is why long jams are expected. 4. There was no bridge in this place and we took a boat to cross the river. 5. There are nine four-berth compartments for passengers, a compartment for the attendants, two toilet rooms and 2 vestibules in the sleeping car.


V. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление окончания -s.

1. The first Stephenson’s steam locomotive is demonstrated now in the London museum. 2. There is a train radio telephone in each driver’s cap and a dispatcher can communicate with the driver in the case of emergency. 3. Almost 500 million vehicles fill the world’s roads nowadays. 4. The driver of the bus is responsible for his passengers’ safety. 5. Heathrow, London’s major airport was opened in 1929 as a small base for airplane tests.

VI. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление прилагательных в сравнительной и превосходной степенях. Подчеркните прилагательные в английских предложениях и укажите степень сравнения.

1. In Australia the traffic is heavier during the winter months, when many tourists travel in passenger trains. 2. It is much more convenient to travel by express train because it doesn’t stop at small stations, and it takes you less time to get to your destination. 3. The world’s longest road tunnel links France and Italy beneath Europe’s highest peak Mont Blanc. 4. Statistically it is safer to travel by air than to drive a car. 5. The maximum train speed on the West Coast railway line (Great Britain) is 77 miles per hour but there are many sections where the speed is much lower because of tight curves and steep gradients.


VII. Перепишите и переведите предложения, употребив прилагательные, данные в скобках, в сравнительной или превосходной степени.

1. Russia possesses (heavy) helicopters MI-26 in the world which lift and transport cargos up to 20 tons. 2. This road is (bad) I have ever traveled over. 3. The environment contamination remains one of (important) problems in the modern world. 4. The first steam locomotive “The Rocket” was much (small) and (light) than modern locomotives. 5. The Pan-American Highway is (long) road in the world.

VIII. Перепишите предложения. Задайте общие вопросы и специальные вопросы к подчеркнутым словам.

1. The incandescent lamp was invented by Edison. 2. Railway track will be strengthened on this section of the mainline because it is planned to increase the volume of freight traffic here. 3. Road accidents are more frequent in rainy weather. 4. In some countries the locomotive pulls the train in one direction and pushes in the other. 5. Steel sleepers first appeared in Europe in 1868, mainly because of the shortage of durable wood in some countries. 6. In our Metro trains run every 8 minutes. 7. Civil engineering means the construction of roads, railways, bridges, tunnels, canals, etc.


IX. Перепишите и переведите текст.

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